Saturday, August 9, 2014

The Great Muslim Scientists of All Time.

Here is a little intro about them and their work to the world of science.All the scientists are before 14th century ..,When you the Europe was called a Dark continent ,Muslims Scientists Were ruling in all over the world!
I don't know what happened now But anyways Don't Forget the Past=)
Better be Proud!

Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

Consequently he is considered to be the father of algebra,[6] a title he shares with Diophantus. Latin translations of his Arithmetic, on the Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world in the 12th century.[5] He revised and updated Ptolemy's Geography as well as writing several works on astronomy and astrology.

His contributions not only made a great impact on mathematics, but on language as well. The word algebra is derived from al-jabr, one of the two operations used to solve quadratic equations, as described in his book.

For complete intro:

Avicenna was a Persian polymath and the foremost physician and Islamic philosopher of his time. He was also an astronomer, chemist, Hafiz, logician, mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, scientist, Sheikh, soldier, statesman and theologian.

His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many Islamic and European universities up until the early 19th century .
Ibn Sīnā is regarded as a father of early modern medicine, and clinical pharmacology particularly for his introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,] his discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, clinical pharmacology, neuropsychiatry, risk factor analysis, and the idea of a syndrome,[30] and the importance of dietetics and the influence of climate and environment on health.
He is also considered the father of the fundamental concept of momentum in physics, and regarded as a pioneer of aromatherapy.

George Sarton,, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science:

"One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent figure in Islamic learning was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna (981-1037). For a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history. His most important medical works are the Qanun (Canon) and a treatise on Cardiac drugs. The 'Qanun fi-l-Tibb' is an immense encyclopedia of medicine. It contains some of the most illuminating thoughts pertaining to distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy; contagious nature of phthisis; distribution of diseases by water and soil; careful description of skin troubles; of sexual diseases and perversions; of nervous ailments.


He is "considered by many to be the father of chemistry.
abir Ibn Hayyan is widely credited with the introduction of the experimental method in alchemy, and with the invention of numerous important processes still used in modern chemistry today, such as the syntheses of hydrochloric and nitric acids, distillation, and crystallisation. His original works are highly esoteric and probably coded, though nobody today knows what the code is. On the surface, his alchemical career revolved around an elaborate chemical numerology based on consonants in the Arabic names of substances and the concept of takwin, the artificial creation of life in the alchemical laboratory. Research has also established that oldest text of Jabiran corpus must have originated in the scientific culture of northeastern Persia. This thesis is supported by the Persian language and Middle Persian terms used in the technical vocabulary.

The most significant aspect of al-Jazari's machines are the mechanisms, components, ideas, methods and design features which they employ.

Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī
He was involved in the measurement of the diameter of the Earth together with a team of scientists under the patronage of al-Ma'mūn in Baghdad.
The Alfraganus crater on the Moon was named after him.

Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various fields of science. He was well-versed in Persian, Greek and Indian medical knowledge and made numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries.] He was an early proponent of experimental medicine and is considered the father of pediatrics. He was also a pioneer of neurosurgery and ophthalmology.

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
physicist, an anthropologist and psychologist, an astronomer, a chemist, a critic of alchemy and astrology, an encyclopedist and historian, a geographer and traveller, a geodesist and geologist, a mathematician, a pharmacist and physician, an Islamic philosopher and Shia theologian, and a scholar and teacher, and he contributed greatly to all of these fields.

He was the first scholar to study India and the Brahminical tradition, and has been described as the father of Indology, the father of geodesy, and "the first anthropologist". He was also one of the earliest leading exponents of the experimental scientific method, and was responsible for introducing the experimental method into mechanics, the first to conduct elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena, and a pioneer of experimental psychology.

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, described Biruni as "One of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times.

Robert E. Hall wrote the following on al-Khazini:

"His hydrostatic balance can leave no doubt that as a maker of scientific instruments he is among the greatest of any time."

Ibn al-Haytham
HE made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the scientific method.

Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the "father of modern optics" for his influential Book of Optics, which correctly explained and proved the modern intromission theory of vision, and for his experiments on optics, including experiments on lenses, mirrors, refraction, reflection, and the dispersion of light into its constituent colours. He studied binocular vision and the moon illusion, described the finite speed[] and rectilinear propagation of light and and argued that rays of light are streams of corpuscular energy particles[16]travelling in straight lines.] Due to his formulation of a modern quantitative, empirical and experimental approach to physics and science, he is considered the pioneer of the modern scientific method and the originator of experimental science and experimental physics, and some have described him as the "first scientist" for these reasons.

He is also considered by some to be the founder of experimental psychology for his experimental approach to the psychology of visual perception and optical illusions, and a pioneer of the philosophical field of phenomenology.

Among his other achievements, Ibn al-Haytham gave the first clear description and correct analysis of the camera obscura, discovered Fermat's principle of least time and the concept of inertia (Newton's first law of motion), discovered that the heavenly bodies were accountable to the laws of physics, presented a critique and reform of Ptolemaic astronomy, first stated Wilson's theorem in number theory, formulated and solved Alhazen's problem geometrically using early ideas related to calculus and mathematical induction,and in his optical research laid the foundations for the later development of telescopic astronomy,[34] as well as for the microscope and the use of optical aids in Renaissance art.

also known by the Latinized version of his name Alkindus to the West, was an Arabpolymath: a philosopher, scientist, astrologer, astronomer, cosmologist, chemist, logician, mathematician, musician, physician, physicist, psychologist, and meteorologist.
In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals to the Islamic and Christian world. He was a pioneer in cryptanalysis and cryptology, and devised several new methods of breaking ciphers, including the frequency analysis method.] Using his mathematical and medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to quantify the potency of their medication.

Ibn Sahl

Abu Sa`d al-`Ala' ibn Sahl) (c. 940-1000) was an Arabian mathematician, physicist and optics engineer associated with the Abbasid court of Baghdad. About 984 he wrote a treatise On Burning Mirrors and Lenses in which he set out his understanding of how curved mirrors and lenses bend and focus light. Ibn Sahl is credited with first discovering the law of refraction, usually called Snell's law.[1][2] He used the law of refraction to work out the shapes of lenses that focus light with no geometric aberrations, known as anaclastic lenses.

known as Algazel to the western medieval world, was born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). He was a Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, physician, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin], and remains one of the most celebrated scholars in the history of Sufi Islamic thought. He is considered a pioneer of the methods of doubt and skepticism, and in one of his major works, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, he changed the course of early Islamic philosophy, shifting it away from the influence of ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophy, and towards cause-and-effect that were determined by God or intermediate angels.

Im Tired and rest of the scientists you can go through with this list if you are

I am tired If anyone else can do it then go ahead=)

And here is the complete list.

Astronomers and Astrophysicists

* Muhammad
* Muhammad Ahmad Khan Minhas
* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Jafar al-Sadiq
* Yaqūb ibn Tāriq
* Ibrahim al-Fazari
* Muhammad al-Fazari
* Mashallah
* Naubakht
* Al-Khwarizmi, also a mathematician
* Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar)
* Al-Farghani
* Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa)
o Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
* Thābit ibn Qurra (Thebit)
o Sinan ibn Thabit
o Ibrahim ibn Sinan
* Al-Majriti
* Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius)
* Al-Farabi (Abunaser)
* Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi
* Abu Sa'id Gorgani
* Kushyar ibn Labban
* Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin
* Al-Mahani
* Al-Marwazi
* Al-Nayrizi
* Al-Saghani
* Al-Farghani
* Abu Nasr Mansur
* Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (Kuhi)
* Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi
* Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī
* Ibn Yunus
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen)
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna
* Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel)
* Omar Khayyám
* Al-Khazini
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
* Ibn Tufail (Abubacer)
* Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi (Alpetragius)
* Averroes
* Al-Jazari
* Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī
* Anvari
* Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi
* Nasir al-Din Tusi
* Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
* Ibn al-Shatir
* Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī
* Jamshīd al-Kāshī
* Ulugh Beg, also a mathematician
* Taqi al-Din, Ottoman astronomer
* Ahmad Nahavandi
* Haly Abenragel
* Ghallia Kaouk
* Abolfadl Harawi
* Kerim Kerimov, a founder of Soviet space program, a lead architect behind first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and the lead architect of the first space stations (Salyut and Mir)[1][2]
* Farouk El-Baz, a NASA scientist involved in the first Moon landings with the Apollo program[3]
* Abdul Kalam
* Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
* Muhammed Faris
* Abdul Ahad Mohmand
* Talgat Musabayev
* Anousheh Ansari
* Amir Ansari
* Essam Heggy, a planetary scientist involved in the NASA Mars Exploration Program[4]
* Ahmed Salem
* Alaa Ibrahim
* Mohamed Sultan
* Ahmed Noor
* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, pioneer of biomedical research in space[5][6]

[edit] Chemists and Alchemists

Further information: Alchemy (Islam)

* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Jafar al-Sadiq
* Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber), father of chemistry[7][8][9]
* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman)
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus)
* Al-Majriti
* Ibn Miskawayh
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna
* Al-Khazini
* Nasir al-Din Tusi
* Hasan al-Rammah
* Ibn Khaldun
* Sake Dean Mahomet
* Salimuzzaman Siddiqui
* Al Khawazimi Father of Al-Gabra, (Mathematics)
* Ahmed H. Zewail, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1999[10]
* Ali Eftekhari

[edit] Computer Scientists

* Lotfi Asker Zadeh, Iranian computer scientist; founder of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory[11][12]
* Jawed Karim, Bangladeshi American software engineer; lead architect of PayPal and co-founder of YouTube[13]
* Pierre Omidyar, Iranian American entrepreneur; founder of eBay[14]

[edit] Economists and Social Scientists

Further information: Islamic sociology, Early Muslim sociology, and Islamic economics in the world
See also: List of Muslim historians and Historiography of early Islam

* Muhammad (570-632), discussed corporate social responsibility[15]
* Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man (699-767), economist
* Abu Yusuf (731-798), economist
* Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931), economist
* Al-Farabi (Alpharabius) (873–950), economist
* Al-Saghani (d. 990), one of the earliest historians of science[16]
* Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir (Qabus) (d. 1012), economist
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048), considered the "first anthropologist"[17] and father of Indology[18]
* Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037), economist
* Ibn Miskawayh (b. 1030), economist
* Al-Ghazali (Algazel) (1058–1111), economist
* Al-Mawardi (1075–1158), economist
* Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (Tusi) (1201-1274), economist
* Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), sociologist
* Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), economist
* Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), forerunner of social sciences[19] such as demography,[20] cultural history,[21] historiography,[22] philosophy of history,[23] sociology[20][23] and economics[24][25]
* Al-Maqrizi (1364-1442), economist
* Akhtar Hameed Khan, Pakistani social scientist; pioneer of microcredit
* Mahbub ul Haq, Pakistani economist; developer of Human Development Index and founder of Human Development Report[26][27]
* Muhammad Yunus, Bangladeshi economist; father of microcredit and microfinance[28][29]

[edit] Geographers and Earth Scientists

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution

* Muhammad, discussed environmental philosophy[30]
* Al-Masudi, the "Herodotus of the Arabs", and pioneer of historical geography[31]
* Al-Kindi, pioneer of environmental science[32]
* Qusta ibn Luqa
* Ibn Al-Jazzar
* Al-Tamimi
* Al-Masihi
* Avicenna
* Ali ibn Ridwan
* Muhammad al-Idrisi, also a cartographer
* Ahmad ibn Fadlan
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, father of geodesy,[17][33] considered the first geologist and "first anthropologist"[17]
* Avicenna
* Ibn Jumay
* Abd-el-latif
* Averroes
* Ibn al-Nafis
* Ibn al-Quff
* Ibn Battuta
* Ibn Khaldun
* Piri Reis
* Evliya Çelebi
* Zaghloul El-Naggar

[edit] Mathematicians

Further information: Islamic mathematics: Biographies

* Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Matar
* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi) - father of algebra[34] and algorithms[35]
* Al-Abbās ibn Said al-Jawharī
* 'Abd al-Hamīd ibn Turk
* Hunayn ibn Ishaq
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus)
* Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar)
* Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa)
o Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
* Al-Mahani
* Ahmed ibn Yusuf
* Thābit ibn Qurra (Thebit)
o Sinan ibn Thabit
o Ibrahim ibn Sinan
* Al-Majriti
* Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius)
* Al-Farabi (Abunaser)
* Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam
* Al-Nayrizi
* Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin
* Brethren of Purity
* Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi
* Al-Saghani
* Abū Sahl al-Qūhī
* Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi
* Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī
* Ibn Sahl
* Al-Sijzi
* Ibn Yunus
* Abu Nasr Mansur
* Kushyar ibn Labban
* Al-Karaji
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen/Alhazen)
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna
* Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi
* Al-Nasawi
* Al-Jayyani
* Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel)
* Al-Mu'taman ibn Hud
* Omar Khayyám
* Al-Khazini
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
* Al-Ghazali (Algazel)
* Al-Samawal
* Averroes
* Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī
* Ibn Mun`im
* Al-Marrakushi
* Ibn al-Banna'
* Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi
* Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, 13th century Persian mathematician and philosopher
* Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
* Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī
* Muḥyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī
* Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī
* Al-Khalili
* Ibn al-Shatir
* Qāḍī Zāda al-Rūmī
* Jamshīd al-Kāshī
* Ulugh Beg
* Taqi al-Din
* Muhammad Baqir Yazdi
* Ibn Baso
* Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī (1412-1482), pioneer of symbolic algebra[36]
* Lotfi Asker Zadeh, Iranian computer scientist; founder of Fuzzy Mathematics and fuzzy set theory[11][12]
* Cumrun Vafa
* Jeffrey Lang Professor at the University of Kansas converted to Islam from atheism
* Mostafa Mosharafa

[edit] Neuroscientists and Psychologists

Further information: Islamic psychological thought

* Muhammad, discussed mental health[37]
* Ibn Sirin (654–728), author of work on dreams and dream interpretation[38]
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus), pioneer of psychotherapy and music therapy[39]
* Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, pioneer of psychiatry, clinical psychiatry and clinical psychology[40]
* Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, pioneer of mental health,[37] medical psychology, cognitive psychology, cognitive therapy, psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine[41]
* Najab ud-din Muhammad, pioneer of mental disorder classification[42]
* Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), pioneer of social psychology and consciousness studies[43]
* Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (Haly Abbas), pioneer of neuroanatomy, neurobiology and neurophysiology[43]
* Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), pioneer of neurosurgery[44]
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), founder of experimental psychology, psychophysics, phenomenology and visual perception[45]
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, pioneer of reaction time[46]
* Avicenna (Ibn Sina), pioneer of physiological psychology,[42] neuropsychiatry,[47] thought experiment, self-awareness and self-consciousness[48]
* Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), pioneer of neurology and neuropharmacology[44]
* Averroes, pioneer of Parkinson's disease[44]
* Ibn Tufail, pioneer of tabula rasa and nature versus nurture[49]

[edit] Physicians and Surgeons

Main article: Muslim doctors
Further information: Islamic medicine

* Muhammad, discussed contagion[50][51] and early Islamic medical treatments[52]
* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Jafar al-Sadiq
* Shapur ibn Sahl (d. 869), pioneer of pharmacy and pharmacopoeia[53]
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus) (801-873), pioneer of pharmacology[54]
* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman) (810-887)
* Al-Jahiz, pioneer of natural selection
* Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, pioneer of medical encyclopedia[40]
* Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi
* Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931), pioneer of peer review and medical peer review[55]
* Al-Farabi (Alpharabius)
* Abul Hasan al-Tabari - physician
* Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari - physician
* Ibn Al-Jazzar
* Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (d. 994), pioneer of obstetrics and perinatology[56]
* Abu Gaafar Amed ibn Ibrahim ibn abi Halid al-Gazzar (10th century), pioneer of dental restoration[57]
* Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) - father of modern surgery, and pioneer of neurosurgery,[44] craniotomy,[56] hematology[58] and dental surgery[59]
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), pioneer of eye surgery, visual system[60] and visual perception[61]
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037) - father of modern medicine,[62] founder of Unani medicine,[58] pioneer of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, clinical pharmacology,[63] aromatherapy,[64] pulsology and sphygmology,[65] and also a philosopher
* Ibn Miskawayh
* Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) - father of experimental surgery,[66] and pioneer of experimental anatomy, experimental physiology, human dissection, autopsy[67] and tracheotomy[68]
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
* Ibn Tufail (Abubacer)
* Averroes
* Ibn al-Baitar
* Nasir al-Din Tusi
* Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), father of circulatory physiology, pioneer of circulatory anatomy,[69] and founder of Nafisian anatomy, physiology,[70] pulsology and sphygmology[71]
* Ibn al-Quff (1233-1305), pioneer of modern embryology[56]
* Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī
* Ibn Khatima (14th century), pioneer of bacteriology and microbiology[72]
* Ibn al-Khatib (1313-1374)
* Mansur ibn Ilyas
* Saghir Akhtar - pharmacist
* Toffy Musivand
* Samuel Rahbar
* Muhammad B. Yunus, the "father of our modern view of fibromyalgia"[73]
* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, pioneer of biomedical research in space[5][6]

[edit] Physicists

Further information: Islamic physics

* Muhammad explained creation of the universe
* Jafar al-Sadiq, 8th century
* Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa), 9th century
o Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), 9th century
* Thābit ibn Qurra (Thebit), 9th century
* Al-Saghani, 10th century
* Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (Kuhi), 10th century
* Ibn Sahl, 10th century
* Ibn Yunus, 10th century
* Al-Karaji, 10th century
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), 11th century Iraqi scientist, father of optics,[74] pioneer of scientific method[75] and experimental physics,[76] considered the "first scientist"[77]
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, 11th century, pioneer of experimental mechanics[78]
* Avicenna, 11th century
* Al-Khazini, 12th century
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), 12th century
* Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (Nathanel), 12th century
* Averroes, 12th century Andalusian mathematician, philosopher and medical expert
* Al-Jazari, 13th century civil engineer, father of robotics,[9] father of modern engineering[79]
* Nasir al-Din Tusi, 13th century
* Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, 13th century
* Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī, 13th century
* Hasan al-Rammah, 13th century
* Ibn al-Shatir, 14th century
* Taqi al-Din, 16th century
* Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, 17th century
* Lagari Hasan Çelebi, 17th century
* Sake Dean Mahomet, 18th century
* Tipu Sultan, 18th century Indian mechanician
* Fazlur Khan, 20th century Bangladeshi mechanician
* Mahmoud Hessaby, 20th century Iranian physicist
* Ali Javan, 20th century Iranian physicist
* Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie, 20th century Indonesian aerospace engineer and president
* Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistani nuclear physicist
* Abdus Salam, Pakistani physicist; Nobel Prize in Physics 1977[80]
* Abdul Kalam, Indian nuclear physicist
* Mehran Kardar, Iranian theoretical physicist
* Cumrun Vafa, Iranian mathematical physicist
* Nima Arkani-Hamed, American-born Iranian physicist
* Abdel Nasser Tawfik, Egyptian-born German Particle Physisist

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