What is male circumcision?
"The word circumcision means “to cut around”. In male infants, circumcision is an operation which involves tearing the foreskin away from the glans (head) of the penis, cutting along the top of the foreskin, then clamping the foreskin and cutting it off. The skin of the penis is a complex movable 'sheath' with no clear indication of where it should be cut during a circumcision. This means that the amount of foreskin removed from one circumcision to the next can be very different, and no two circumcisions are the same." (1)
1) Prophet Ibrahim & circumcision:
Circumcision of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) is actually not in the Qur'an. The Qur'an deals extensively with Prophet Ibrahim, his name alone is mentioned sixty-seven times. Yet the Qur'an says nothing of him being circumcised or being commanded to do so. Rather it was his faith in Allah and devotion to Him alone which is stressed throughout the Qur'an and which is to be followed. The Qur'an deals with Prophet Ibrahim's construction of the Kaba and other matters - but does not say he was told to cut off a part of his private parts. There is an important reason why as we shall see shortly.
“They say, ‘Be Jews or Christians and you will be guided.’ Say, rather adopt the religion of Abraham, a man of natural pure belief. He was not one of the idolaters.’ (Qur’an 2:136)
We follow the way of Ibrahim by following the religion communicated in the Qur'an, not the Bible where this injunction is found, teachings of Allah in the Quran supersede them:
"Allah wants to clarify to you the way of those who went before you and guide you to it, and to forgive you - Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise." (Qur'an 4:26)
2) Allah tells us that He has created human beings perfectly:
In numerous Verses of the Qur'an, Allah tells us that He has created everything, including human beings, in the most perfect form. In the following verse, Allah explicitly states this with regards to the human creation:
"We have indeed created man in the 'best of moulds'." (Qur'an 95:4)
This means when a baby leaves the mother's womb, he or she is in the most perfect of shape down to the finest detail. Nothing needs alteration. With regards to the development of the baby, Allah states the following:
"Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the 'Best of all Creators!' " (Qur'an 23:14)
Notice that Allah states that He is the best creator - the resulting completed creation of the baby is thus in its optimal form.
In another verse, Allah states:
"The work of Allah who has 'perfected everything' (He created)." (Qur'an 27:88)
Also in two other Verses, in relation to human beings, Allah says the following:
"The One Who has 'perfected everything' He has created and began the creation of human beings from clay" (Qur'an 32:7)
"Allah is the One who made the Earth a habitat for you, and the sky as a structure, and He designed you, and has perfected your design. " (Qur'an 40:64)
الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الإِنْسَانِ مِنْ طِينٍ
"The One who has PERFECTED EVERYTHING HE HAS CREATED and began the creation of mankind from clay" (32:7)
In this verse Allah states He has أَحْسَنَ everything He made. The word originating from حَسَن (good) is in superlative form, when applied in this manner, it means the infinitely highest form of حَسَن. Thus, the translation is "PERFECTED" everything (the same goes for 40:64). "Everything", translation of كُلَّ شَيْءٍ means EVERYTHING Allah has made, stars, moon, plants, animals, the human being. Thus the male genitalia is perfected by Allah.
40:64 is in direct reference to human beings ("perfected your [i.e. human kind's] design").
All these verses tell us that Allah creates human beings, male and female, perfectly in the mother's womb. The design of the foreskin on the male is an intentional act of creation. Allah did not make a 'mistake' in designing the foreskin of the male. He does not need mankind to take a knife and start cutting off bits from all males, as if though it is a 'corrective procedure' to a design flaw.
"You will not see any flaw in what the Lord of Mercy creates." (Qur'an 67:3)
The proponents of circumcision say there are reasons such as hygiene and other benefits behind them doing this. This is actually an insult against Allah. Because, had it been 'better' in anyway to not have the foreskin, Allah would have designed all male babies without that bit of the foreskin - as Allah states, he has perfected His creation as is stated in several verses in the Qur'an. As per the Quranic understanding, medical research shows that the foreskin serves numerous useful purposes and is designed intentionally by Allah to serve these purposes.
3) Functions of the Foreskin
Following are some of the functions it performs, and what happens if you surgically remove it:
- ✔ Ridged Bands. The inner foreskin contains bands of densely innervated, sexually responsive tissue. They constitute a primary erogenous zone of the human penis and are important for realizing the fullness and intensity of sexual response.
- ✔ Specialized sensory tissue. In addition to the 'ridged bands' mentioned above, thousands of coiled fine-touch receptors (Meissner’s corpuscles) constitute the most important sensory component of the penis. The foreskin contains branches of the dorsal nerve and between 10,000 and 20,000 specialized erotogenic nerve endings of several types, which are capable of sensing slight motion and stretch, subtle changes in temperature, and fine gradations in texture. Thus, up to 20,000 nerve endings are removed by circumcision. Note that the most sensitive part of the penis is the tip of the foreskin (the transitional region from external to internal prepuce). This part is always removed in circumcisions.
- ✔ Protection. The sleeve of tissue (foreskin) normally covers the sensitive glans and protects it from abrasion, drying, callusing (keratinization), and environmental contaminants. The inner lining of the foreskin consists of soft mucosa lubrication layer, like behind one's eyelids, or the inner lips, thus protecting the sensitive glans from abrasion. The glans (concealed in the picture) is intended to be a protected internal organ, like the female clitoris. The internal glans are highly sensitive, but after circumcision, begins to loose its sensitivity through abrasion in diaper and underwear. For the first few weeks, it is very painful to the touch of fabric or diaper. It is similar to the human eyeball, which is protected by the eye lids. One would not touch the eyeballs directly but over the eyelids only - it is that sensitive. After circumcision, the exposed glans begins to dry-out and keratinize (builds hardened cell layer on the outside as a defence from environmental contaminants).
- In normal activity during adult life, even after loosing most of the sensitivity through abrasion post-circumcision, the abrasion/chafing of the glans against underwear without the protection of the foreskin causes constant, irritating 'abrasive' feelings. This is very uncomfortable in reality for the adult male. However, as the procedure is usually done at childhood and the discomfort is consistent from then on, the brain learns to cope with it by suppressing these feelings. Nevertheless, a conscious effort can reveal this discomfort during adulthood and all circumcised males have it.
- ✔ The Frenulum. A Frenulum is a small fold of tissue that secures or restricts the motion of a mobile organ to the body. Frenulums can be found under the tongue and on the inside of the human lips. On the human penis, a Frenulum connects the foreskin to the glans to pull the foreskin over the glans when not aroused in order to protect it. This Frenulum is a highly nerve-laden web of tissue.
- ✔ Proper blood flow. The foreskin contains several feet of blood vessels, including the frenular artery and branches of the dorsal artery. The loss of this rich vascularization interrupts normal blood flow to the shaft and glans of the penis, damaging the natural function of the penis and altering its development.
✔ Immunological defense. The soft mucosa of the inner foreskin produces plasma cells, which secrete immunoglobulin antibodies, and antibacterial and antiviral proteins, such as the pathogen-killing enzyme called lysozyme. All of the human mucosa (the linings of the mouth, eyelids, vagina, foreskin and anus) are the body's first line of defense against disease. This benefit of the foreskin could be one possible explanation why intact men are at lower risk of chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases.
✔ Gliding action. The foreskin is the only moving part of the penis. During any sexual activity, the foreskin and glans work in unison; their mutual interaction creates a complete sexual response. During intercourse, the non-abrasive gliding of the penis in and out of itself within the vagina facilitates smooth and pleasurable intercourse for both partners. Circumcision not just involves cutting away, but stitching all around the foreskin permanently to the shaft. Thus foreskin cannot glide any more and makes the circumcised penis a static organ.
The shaft/glans also retract inwards/outwards throughout the day in the flaccid state varying with bodily parameters. In an intact penis, the foreskin glides smoothly over the glans as necessary, excess skin gathers ahead of the glans if needed. On a circumcised penis, the cut foreskin buckle and crease against the stitched position on the shaft as it retracts, preventing the shaft/glans from retracting properly and causing discomfort. The stitched foreskin acts like a spring preventing the retraction of the penis. This push of the buckled foreskin against the joint (stitch) during retractions through out the day (as well as pull during erection) is unnatural and uncomfortable compared to an intact naturally gliding foreskin-glans combination. All circumcised males have to again, subconsciously learn to ignore the discomfort. Stinging sensations along the stitched position may be felt during adulthood.
✔ Proper lymph flow. The foreskin contains lymphatic vessels, which are necessary for proper lymph flow and immunological functioning.
✔ Langerhans cells. These specialized epithelial cells are a component of the immune system and may play a role in protecting the penis from sexually transmitted infections such as HIV (AIDS).
✔ Dartos Fascia. This is a smooth temperature-sensitive muscle sheath that underlies the scrotum, the entire penis and the tip of the foreskin. It is necessary for proper temperature regulation of the genitals (causing these structures to elongate in the heat and shrink in the cold). Approximately half of the Dartos Fascia is destroyed by circumcision. In circumcised males, the glans can become cold at times due to the missing temperature control mechanism (exposed glans).
✔ Sebaceous glands. The oils produced by these glands lubricate and moisturize the foreskin and glans, so that the two structures function together smoothly.
✔ Full penis length and circumference. The foreskin creates a visibly longer penis, especially when the foreskin extends beyond the head of the penis. Also, the double-layered tissue of the foreskin engorges with blood during erection and creates a visibly and sensually thicker shaft and glans. When the engorged foreskin retracts behind the coronal ridge of the glans, it often creates a wider and more pronounced "ridge" that many partners find especially stimulating during penetrative intercourse. The circumcised penis appears truncated and thinner than a full-sized intact penis.
✔ Risk of death from surgery. Every year in the United States alone, an estimated 100 boys die from the complications of circumcision. Worldwide the figure is much higher, a fact that the American circumcision industry ignores, obscures, or downplays.
✔ Risk of delayed or diminished maternal bonding. Circumcision, even if anaesthesia is used, causes unavoidable operative trauma and post-operative pain that has been shown to disrupt bonding with the mother, which in turn interferes with the first developmental task of every human, that of trust (trust in human contact, in personal safety, etc)."
✔ Oestrogen Receptors. The presence of estrogen receptors within the foreskin has only recently been discovered. Their purpose is not yet understood and needs further study.
✔ Neurological Sexual Communication. Although never studied scientifically, contemporary evidence suggests that a penis without its foreskin lacks the capacity for the subtle neurological "cross-communication" that occurs only during contact between mucous membranes and which contributes to the experience of sexual pleasure. Amputating an infant boy's multi-functional foreskin is a low-grade neurological castration" [Immerman], which diminishes the intensity of the entire sexual experience for both the circumcised male and his partner).
See (2) below for references to the above facts.
"The work of Allah who has perfected everything." (Qur'an 27:88)
"We have indeed created man in the best of moulds." (Qur'an 95:4)
Allah created men in this way with knowledge of all the above reasons. The proponents of circumcision try to side-track these verses. Most of the time, they have never read verses such as those above, because they are too occupied with reading books written by man. Or they may have never thought of the verses in this way because of their surface reading attitude towards the Qur'an instilled in them by the majority and the trusted scholars.
As mentioned, one of the arguments put forward is that circumcision is done for cleanliness. However, they do not want to acknowledge that it is simple, basic hygiene practice in the shower to keep clean for a man - it takes less time to clean under the foreskin than to brush teeth! Our noses filter the air and need more regular cleaning, we do not simply go and chop it off because we need to clean it.
They cite arguments such as 'it prevents diseases'. However, only about 20% of the earth's male population are circumcised, 80% are not (3), do we have an epidemic breaking loose? The answer is 'no'.
Developing disorders with any part of the body is a possibility. For example, the risk of breast cancer in women. More than 45,000 women in the UK were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2006(4) (yet, this figure is very high compared to anything that goes wrong with intact penises). Should we put all girls through mastectomy to eliminate the possibility of developing breast cancer in their lives ('mastectomy' is the removal of breast tissue)? Or in eliminating the possibility of developing testicular cancer in males, should we remove the male testicles? You would say 'no' because they serve an important role in reproduction. The foreskin too serves important functions such as those we have discussed - functions which you may have not been aware of nor appreciated if you are a male circumcised at childhood or birth, or if you are a female.
False allegation: Circumcision will prevent Penile Cancer
Penile Cancer is a rare form of cancer that happens mostly to older men from age 40 and above, but most cases are in men aged 60 and over. In the UK, only 500 men are diagnosed with it each year. The rarity of this form of cancer shows when this figure is compared with 35,000 men diagnosed with prostates cancer each year(5) ! Circumcision does not prevent penile cancer. In the United States, most men with penile cancer are circumcised. However, does circumcision reduce the risk of penile cancer despite it being a very low risk cancer already? Basically, by removing a part of the penis in circumcision, a part of the penis is not there to develop cancer. This is the same as saying, by removing the liver, we eliminate liver cancer! It is obvious to a thinking person that this sort of prevention where healthy parts of the body with many functions is simply cut off is not a way to prevent a disease which has not even occurred, and moreover which has an extremely small chance of happening. Is it justified to surgically remove multi-functional foreskin of the male, and cause all the disadvantages we have identified without even the person's consent (babies)?
A recent study done by Wallerstein concluded that circumcision does not help reduce the risk of penile cancer as the rates of penile cancer in Japan, Norway and Sweden (countries with low rate of circumcision) was the same as United States' (which has a higher rate of circumcision)(6). In view of all that has been said, the 'Royal Australasian College of Physicians' and the 'American Medical Association' made a statement saying that carrying out infant circumcision with the hope of preventing penile cancer is not justified(7), with the 'American Cancer Society' also holding the same view.
Another argument put forward is 'why do we cut our hair or fingernails then'? Fingernails and hair are quite different. They are not living flesh with full blood circulation and receptive sensors. Hair and fingernails were intentionally designed and intended to continuously grow and to be cut regularly and consist of dead cells. This is not the case with the foreskin which is sustained through blood circulation like any other permanent part of the body. The male foreskin is intended to be a permanent part of the body (like ones fingers) which performs several useful designed functions that can only be served by being there - it does not grow back. Because these functions of the foreskin are important, Allah designed the male human in this way. Allah has designed the foreskin in the male humans because it is better - as He states, He is the "Best of all Creators" (Qur'an 23:14). If something is "better" He would design His creation in that way, not in the less optimal way. He is the one who designs human beings, male and female, perfectly in the womb. Cutting off multi-functional, nerve-laden living foreskin off a baby is in principle, the same as cutting his fingers off.
Why the Frenulum if Allah wanted boys to be circumcised?
The frenulum, linking the foreskin to the glans on the underside of the penis, is designed to pull the foreskin over the glans once it returns to flaccid state, yet allowing gliding action during intercourse ( diagram ). Circumcision involves clamping/stitching the foreskin permanently to the shaft behind the coronal ridge, fixing its position (no gliding action). This destroys the functionality and need of the frenulum placed by Allah. Why did Allah write the frenulum in all male human DNA if he wants people to destroy its designed function?
The answer is that Allah designed it as part of a perfect system in the male human anatomy, and it is to function as Allah willed it like all other systems of the human body! The frenulum proves that Allah intended the penis to remain intact throughout a man's life.
Note that unlike the frenulums in the mouth, the penile frenulum is sexually sensitive. In a circumcision, the frenulum may also be completely removed.
One other argument they put forth is that some babies are born with disorders, so the understanding of the verses on perfection of creation has to be seen differently. For example they say, the verse, "We have indeed created man in the best of moulds." (Qur'an 95:4) cannot be used against circumcision as humans are not always born perfect. What they do not understand is that the verses we read on perfection of human beings' body in the Qur'an are referring to the actual 'blueprint' - or in other words, the 'default plan' in Allah's creation. That is, for example, all humans have five fingers on each hand, two eyes, one tongue etc. That is the actual design of Allah. If there is a baby born with a disorder to the genes, for example with a missing finger, then this particular baby's disorder is not part of Allah's blueprint (which is perfect), hence the reason we are calling the condition a 'disorder'!
The foreskin is part of Allah's blueprint as all male human beings are born with it (a default part of the DNA), which makes it part of Allah's perfect creation and which is why all the verses we quoted are applicable. This is why the suggestion of circumcision as a beneficial procedure for the male human being is actually a gross insult against the perfection in Allah's design as well as Quranic verses.
"Woe to man! How ungrateful He is! From what thing does Allah create Him? He created him from a droplet and then 'ordained his proportions'. " (Qur'an 80:17-19)
3 primary ways sexual pleasure is lost:
● Complete loss of gliding action.
● Removal of 20,000 specialised nerve endings
and the most sensitive part of the penis.
● Desensitisation of the glans through abrasion.
"Circumcising" is not a 'fifteen minutes and done' job. Some unperceptive people think that the relatively short duration of the operation shows the 'mildness' of the surgery. But you can amputate a babies arms off in two minutes flat so time does not mean anything! Some facts we need to consider are as follows. Anaesthesia is often not used on babies. Yet, the injection required for anaesthesia has to be applied to the tip of the penis where it is most sensitive. Even with anaesthesia applied, the procedure is excruciatingly painful as anaesthesia is not always completely affective. The worst of the pain actually follows immediately after the procedure as the anaesthesia dies out, when the burning of a raw wound begins to be felt. Pain lasts for many days and weeks as the wound takes its duration to heal (not to forget, the life-long disadvantages from that point on). The healing process is not always smooth as imagined either. Every time he urinates he will usually cry due to 'burning' sensation from the wounded penis. And it is just that, an inflicted 'wound' (no matter what method of circumcision is used). There is also the possibility of bleeding and infection occurring. A baby experiences all these sensations even if he cannot articulate his experience to adults.
One of the ill-found mentality of ignorant parents not acquainted with the Qur'an is them thinking baby circumcision is some how more preferable to circumcision on older boys who can talk. Therefore, many parents circumcise their perfectly healthy babies immediately following birth or in his baby days. The fact is, this makes no difference to the baby - the pain coupled with the trauma of arms and legs strapped down against his persistent crying is all experienced by a living soul. The baby will feel these anguishes just like an adult. The fact that he cannot express his pain in words does not make any difference in reality. The only people it benefits are the parents who some how calm themselves by the fact that the baby cannot express his pain - a form of deep ignorance it is. Research done on measurement of baby pain during circumcisions through such tests as heel-stick blood sampling (for cortisol levels), weighing and measuring, behavioural distress, discharge examination, and heart-rate, describe the pain as "Severe and persistent"(8) and "Among the most painful [procedures] performed in neonatal medicine” (9), and that “This level of pain would not be tolerated by older patients” (10).
The fact that he will not recall his experience as he grows up also means nothing to the baby who will go through the traumatic experience i.e. wiping out memory does not justify inflicting trauma. It has been indicated that even if pain cannot be recalled in adulthood, it can have lasting affects through neurodevelopment problems.
A baby boy put through 'circumcision' - All babies' arms and legs are strapped down during circumcisions. On an adult, this would be considered human rights violations (strapping down a person and manipulating his body as well as causing pain without consent).
Circumcision is even more painful for babies because:
1) On newborn babies, the foreskin is fused to the glans like your finger-nails are fused to your fingers. If you try to separate your finger-nail from your finger, it would be extremely painful. Just like that, on a baby, the surgeon has to physically tear the foreskin away from the glans first, before he can cut the foreskin. The system designed by Allah is that during infancy, the foreskin remains fused to the glans (which is why parents must not attempt to retract it, doing so can be damaging!), removing the need to clean the glans. The foreskin and glans begin to separate as the child grows and is usually fully separated by adolescence. In baby circumcision, tearing away of the foreskin from the glans adds the additional risk of the surgeon damaging/scarring the glans permanently.
2) Recent studies have found that babies nervous systems are highly developed and the ability to sense pain is stronger than an adult. This means a baby is able to feel more pain than an adult
If the Qur'an is against it, then where did this practice originate from? Please note, that the Qur'an is the message of the messenger. If the Qur'an was against it, the prophet was also against circumcision ( See Understanding "Obey Allah & the Messenger" ).
4) Satan's firm pledge to change Allah's creation in the Qur'an:
The Satan pledges to make mankind alter bits of what Allah has created. Allah tells us this information in the following Verse:
"(Satan said), 'I will lead them (mankind) astray and fill them with false hopes. I will command them and they will cut off cattle's ears. I will command them and they will change Allah's creation.' Anyone who takes Satan as his protector in place of Allah has clearly lost everything. He makes promises to them and fills them with false hopes. But what Satan promises them is nothing but delusion." (Qur'an 4:119-120)
As can be seen, the Satan pledges to make people change what Allah has originally created. The fact that Satan uses the Cattle's ears as an example does not at all mean his scheming to change Allah's creation will be limited to this. This is because Satan's goal is to make people change what Allah originally creates, not the act of cutting off cattle's ears which is only a means to the objective - he can take other means too. We know this from his statement, "I will command them and they will change Allah's creation", where "Allah's creation" includes all things Allah creates, including a baby's penis.
Right: A child being circumcised.
Click here to see a picture of "circumcised" baby penis (WARNING:
"We assigned to every prophet an enemy, Satan human and jinn to inspire fancy words to one another in order to deceive - Had your Lord willed so, they would not have done it, so leave them and their fabrications". (Qur'an 6:112)
'Female circumcision' can vary from removal of the clitoral hood, the clitoris it self, to the labia minora or majora. In reality, male circumcision is too an amputation procedure involving significant tissue removal, which destroys the functionality and sexual capability of the male penis to a significant extent. However, the response to female circumcision (no matter what type) is often starkly different to the male. The reasons to this prevalent bias and prejudice against males are several folds but primarily that of 'cultural acceptance'.
The "Equivalent" Female Circumcision to Male Circumcision
The 'clitoral hood' in females has the same embryonic origin as the foreskin in males. Only after a specific stage in the development of the embryo do they take their distinctive forms. In females, the clitoral hood protects the clitoris, in males the foreskin protects the glans ( diagram ). The 'equivalent' female circumcision to male circumcision is clitoral hood removal. If this surgery was done on young girls among people who only circumcise young boys, it may well be that they consider it barbaric, cruel and a sexual violation. Yet, the 'same' act done on boys does not trigger any emotions. Removal of the foreskin is actually more severe than clitoral hood removal. This is because the foreskin area removed is equivalent to a much larger 15 square inches of erogenous tissue, and the fact that the male glans, being more externalised and larger, makes it more prone to abrasion, as well as due to its many other unique purposes.
In parts of Africa as well as other parts of the "Muslim" world, it is normal to circumcise girls and they have 'justifications' for it too, just as one may have for male circumcision. Words such as 'Female Genital Mutilation' or FGM are used by human rights groups. Male "circumcision" too is now being referred to as 'Male Genital Mutilation' or MGM.
6) A point on 'Hadiths' on circumcision:
The Qur'an is the only guide for the believer as stated in the Qur'an. As an interesting point, none of the hadiths in the Sunni hadith books related to circumcision and attributed to the Prophet, differentiate between male or female circumcision and in fact there are hadiths which indicate females should also be circumcised. Because of this feature of the hadiths, many so called Muslim clergyman have passed verdicts that it is mandatory for females to be circumcised. This practice of female circumcision is widespread in many parts of Africa today because of these deviated un-Quranic teachings and lies preached by these so-called scholars. These teachings against the Qur'an (male and female circumcision) as sayings attributed to the prophet, do not originate from the prophet at all.
In fact, those traditionalists who circumcise their sons but not daughters can be challenged to this: Lay all the so-called hadith of the prophet on the subject in front of them and ask 'why do you not circumcise your daughters then?' A very confused look can be observed! This is because there is no basis to discriminate between girls and boys with the basis of hadith, which recommends 'circumcision' for both girls and boys. This begs the question, what is the guide to religion for these people, the Qur'an? Qur'an and hadith? It seems neither! Simply confusion and practices of the majority, a religion lacking Allah's clear guidance and wisdom.
If for argument's sake, Prophet Ibrahim circumcised himself at eighty years of age as hadith state, then he did so at an adult age where he could make his own informed decision. Should this be inflicted on babies and children who cannot make their own decision or make informed judgments? Who decides for him to be a 'Muslim'? (Assuming being a Muslim requires one to carry this act out, though it is on the contrary). An argument they put forth is that other aspects of religion such as salah are taught 'without consent' so why should circumcision not be carried out? The difference is that circumcision is a permanent alteration to his body which cannot be reversed should he wish to be intact in the future. This compares to other elements of raising children, such as teaching prayer and concepts of the Qur'an which are taught-concepts which he may, or may not accept - there is freedom of religion,
"There is no compulsion in religion." (Qur'an 2:256)
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Source : http://www.quranicpath.com/misconceptions/circumcision.html