The Battle of Badr is one of the few battles explicitly discussed in the Qur'an.
3:13 Already there has been for you a sign in the two armies which met -
one fighting in the cause of Allah and another of disbelievers. They
saw them [to be] twice their [own] number by [their] eyesight. But Allah
supports with His victory whom He wills. Indeed in that is a lesson for
those of vision.
Qur'an 3:123And already had Allah given you
victory at [the battle of] Badr while you were few in number. Then fear
Allah ; perhaps you will be grateful.
Qur'an 8:5 [It is] just as
when your Lord brought you out of your home [for the battle of Badr] in
truth, while indeed, a party among the believers were unwilling,
8:17.And you did not kill them, but it was Allah who killed them. And
you threw not, [O Muhammad], when you threw, but it was Allah who threw
that He might test the believers with a good test. Indeed, Allah is
Hearing and Knowing.
Qur'an 8:41And know that anything you obtain
of war booty - then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it and for the
Messenger and for [his] near relatives and the orphans, the needy, and
the [stranded] traveler, if you have believed in Allah and in that which
We sent down to Our Servant on the day of criterion - the day when the
two armies met. And Allah , over all things, is competent.
8:42.[Remember] when you were on the near side of the valley, and they
were on the farther side, and the caravan was lower [in position] than
you. If you had made an appointment [to meet], you would have missed the
appointment. But [it was] so that Allah might accomplish a matter
already destined - that those who perished [through disbelief] would
perish upon evidence and those who lived [in faith] would live upon
evidence; and indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.
Source : http://quran.com/