Is our fate completely pre-destined? Some say we have a choice of which path to choose but what you will find at the end of the path has been chosen for you by Allah. I have also read that qadar was perhaps created by Jahm b. Safwan, not Allah.
Where can I find the information in the Quran and if there is a set destiny how much of it is chosen by God? Is there really a set day on which I will have birth and another for earthly death, for whom I will marry?
What if I did meet the man I am supposed to marry but I somehow choose the wrong path (so I may believe) only to realize I did wrong. Will he come in my path again or have I altered my destiny so that my punishment may be that I can not have this person in my life?.
Praise be to Allaah.
Belief in al-qadar (the divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, when he answered Jibreel’s question about faith: “(It means) believing in Allaah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day, and to believe in al-qadar (the divine decree) both good and bad.”
What is meant by al-qadar is that Allaah has decreed all things from eternity and knows that they will happen at times that are known to Him, and in specific ways, and that He has written that and willed it, and they happen according to what He has decreed. [al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Dr ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud, p. 39].
Belief in al-qadar is based on four things:
1 – Knowledge, i.e., that Allaah knows what His creation will do, by virtue of His eternal knowledge.
2 – Writing, i.e., that Allaah has written the destiny of all creatures in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz.
3 – Will, i.e., that what Allaah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. There is no movement in the heavens or on earth but it happens by His will.
4 – Creation and formation, i.e., that Allaah is the Creator of all things, including the actions of His slaves. They do their actions in a real sense, and He is the Creator of them and of their actions.
Whoever believes in these four believes in al-qadar.
The Qur’aan affirms these things in numerous verses, such as the verses in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record”
“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah”
“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz)”
Muslim (2653) narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “Allaah wrote down the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” He said: “And His Throne was upon the water.”
Hence it should be clear to you that the view that al-qadar was invented by al-Jahm ibn Safwaan is a view that has no sound basis. Al-qadar was not created, rather creation comes under the heading of belief in al-qadar. Al-Jahm went to extremes in affirming the divine will and decree, and claimed that people are compelled to do what they do and have no choice. This is a false view.
The belief of Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaa'ah is that a person has freedom of will, and hence he will be rewarded or punished. But his will is subject to the will of Allaah, and nothing can take place in the universe that is not willed by Allaah.
What some people say, that we have the choice to follow whatever path we want but at the end of this path you will find what Allaah has decreed for you, is a correct view. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful”
“And shown him the two ways (good and evil)?”
“And say: “The truth is from your Lord.” Then whosoever wills, let him believe; and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve”
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, explaining the view of Ahl al-Sunnah with regard to man’s deeds:
People act in a real sense, and Allaah is the Creator of their actions. A person may be a believer or a kaafir, righteous or immoral, he may pray and fast. People have control over their actions, and they have their own will, and Allaah is the Creator of their control and will, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.
And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
al-Waasitiyyah ma’a Sharh Harraas, p. 65.
Marriage is one of the things that Allaah has decreed. The person whom you will marry is known to Allaah: He knows who he is, when he was born, where and when he will die, how he will be towards you, and other details. All of that is known to Allaah and He has written it in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Book of Decrees), and it will inevitably come to pass as Allaah has decreed.
If Allaah has decreed that you will marry one person, but you choose someone else, then no matter how long it takes, you will marry that person. But your marriage to someone else is also decreed, because there is nothing that is not decreed by Allaah. It may be decreed for a woman to marry So and so the son of So and so, and he comes to propose marriage but she refuses him, and marries someone else, then he (the second man) dies or divorces her, then she accepts the first one. All of that is decreed, and it is decreed for her to marry So and so the son of So and so after initially refusing him and after some experience or trials etc.
It may be decreed for a woman that a righteous man will propose marriage to her, but she will refuse him and he will never come back to her, and she will marry and live with someone else who is more or less righteous, according what Allaah has decreed.
Because man does not know what is decreed for him, what he must do is to adhere to sharee’ah and abide by its commands and prohibitions, and to seek the help of Allaah and pray to Him for guidance (istikhaarah) concerning all his affairs, whilst implementing the means, one of the most important of which is consulting sincere people who have relevant experience.
If a righteous man proposes marriage to a woman, she should pray to Allaah for guidance (istikhaarah) and agree to marry him. If things then go smoothly, this is an indication that what is good for her is to marry him.
In conclusion, man should study the sharee’ah of Allaah and follow the commands of Allaah even if he feels reluctant, and avoid what Allaah has forbidden even if he is attached to it. All goodness is to be found in obeying sharee’ah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Jihaad (holy fighting in Allaah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allaah knows but you do not know”
He should not look at al-qadar as an excuse to ignore commands and do forbidden things, rather he should look at it in a way that will make him content with whatever painful experiences happen to him.
And Allaah knows best.
Is it obligatory to obey a ruler who does not rule according to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him)?.
Praise be to Allaah.
The ruler who does not rule according to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger should be obeyed in matters that do not involve disobedience towards Allaah and His Messenger, and it is not obligatory to fight him because of that; rather it is not permissible to do so unless he reaches the level of kufr, in which case it becomes obligatory to oppose him and he has no right to be obeyed by the Muslims.
Ruling according to anything other than that which is in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger reaches the level of kufr when two conditions are met:
1. When he knows the ruling of Allaah and His Messenger; if he is unaware of it, then he does not commit kufr by going against it.
2. When what makes him rule by something other than that which Allaah has revealed is the belief that it is a ruling that is not suitable for our time and that something else is more suitable than it and more beneficial for people.
If these two conditions are met, then ruling by something other than that which Allaah has revealed constitutes kufr which puts a person beyond the pale of Islam, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whosoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the Kaafiroon (i.e. disbelievers)” [al-Maa’idah 5:44]. The authority of the ruler becomes invalid and he has no right to be obeyed by the people; it becomes obligatory to fight him and remove him from power.
But if he rules by something other than that which Allaah has revealed whilst believing that ruling by that – i.e. that which Allaah has revealed -- is what is obligatory, and that it is more suitable for the people, but he goes against it because of some whims and desires on his part or because he wants to wrong the people under his rule, then he is not a kaafir; rather he is a faasiq (evildoer) or a zaalim (wrongdoer). His authority remains, and obeying him in matters that do not involve disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger is obligatory, and it is not permissible to fight him or remove him from power by force or to rebel against him, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) forbade rebelling against rulers unless we see blatant kufr for which we have proof from Allaah. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (2/118)
Conditions of righteous deeds
When does Allaah accept a person’s deeds? What are the conditions for a deed to be righteous and acceptable to Allaah?
Praise be to Allaah.
An action cannot be an act of worship unless it includes two things: complete love and complete humility. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“But those who believe, love Allaah more (than anything else)”
“Verily, those who live in awe for fear of their Lord”
And Allaah mentions them together in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, they used to hasten on to do good deeds, and they used to call on Us with hope and fear, and used to humble themselves before Us” [al-Anbiya’ 21:90]
Once this is understood, we will realize that worship can only be accepted from a Muslim who believes in Allaah alone (Tawheed), as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust” [al-Furqaan 25:23]
In Saheeh Muslim (214) it is narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, during the Jaahiliyyah, Ibn Jud’aan used to uphold the ties of kinship and feed the poor. Will that avail him anything?’ He said, ‘It will not avail him anything because he never said, “O Allaah, forgive me my sins on the Day of Judgement”’” – i.e., he did not believe in the resurrection or do good deeds hoping to meet Allaah.
Moreover, the Muslim’s worship will not be accepted unless it meets two basic conditions:
1 – Sincerity of intention towards Allaah, which means that the person’s intention in all his words and deeds, both outward and inward, is to seek the pleasure of Allaah and none other.
2 – It should be in accordance with the sharee’ah which Allaah has prescribed, and he should not worship Allaah in any other way. That is achieved by following the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and what he brought, and shunning anything that goes against it, and not inventing any new form of worship that has not been narrated in sound reports from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
The evidence for these two conditions is the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
“So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord” [al-Kahf 18:110]
Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “ ‘So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord’ means his reward; ‘let him work righteousness’ means, that which is in accordance with the laws of Allaah; ‘and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord’ this means seeking the Face of Allaah alone, with no partner or associate. These two conditions are the basis of acceptable deeds, which must be sincerely for the sake of Allaah alone and correct according to the sharee’ah of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
Man is accountable
Will man have to account for everything that he does in this world?
Praise be to Allaah.
Each person is a pledge for that which he has earned (cf. al-Toor 52:21, al-Muddaththir 74:38) Whoever believes and does righteous deeds will enter Paradise and whoever disbelieves in Allaah and His Messenger will enter Hell. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment. Truly, Allaah is Ever Most Powerful, All-Wise.
But those who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah — Islamic Monotheism) and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever. Therein they shall have Azwaajun Mutahharatun (purified mates or wives), and We shall admit them to shades wide and ever deepening (Paradise)”[al-Nisaa’ 4:56-57]
Righteous deeds benefit the one who does them, for Allaah has no need of us. And evil deeds only harm the one who does them, for they do not harm Allaah at all, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for (the benefit of) his ownself; and whosoever does evil, it is against his ownself. And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) slaves”[Fussilat 41:46]
And He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And whosoever strives, he strives only for himself. Verily, Allaah stands not in need of any of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn, and all that exists)”[al-‘Ankaboot 29:6]
Allaah is Generous and multiplies hasanaat (good deeds) as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Whoever brings a good deed (Islamic Monotheism and deeds of obedience to Allaah and His Messenger) shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed (polytheism, disbelief, hypocrisy, and deeds of disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger) shall have only the recompense of the like thereof, and they will not be wronged”[al-An’aam 6:160]
Righteous deeds such as prayer, zakaah, fasting, Hajj, enjoining what is good, forbidding what is evil, jihaad, reading Qur’aan, etc., are the symbols of Islam, and the reward for all of them is Paradise, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a (true) believer [in the Oneness of Allaah (Muslim)], such will enter Paradise and not the least injustice, even to the size of a Naqeera (speck on the back of a date stone), will be done to them”[al-Nisaa’ 4:124]
The punishment for all evil deeds and sins such as oppression, shirk (associating others with Allaah), murder, corruption, arrogance, and other sins is Hell, unless one repents. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And whosoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment”[al-Nisaa’ 4:14]
Words and deeds, whether they are good or bad, are all recorded with the Lord of the Worlds. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“This Our Record speaks about you with truth. Verily, We were recording what you used to do (i.e. Our angels used to record your deeds)” [al-Jaathiyah 45:29]
Allaah does not accept any deeds except those which are done purely for Allaah in accordance with the guidance of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord”[al-Kahf 18:110]
On the Day of Resurrection, each person will see what he did, acts of obedience or disobedience, good or evil, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“That Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups that they may be shown their deeds.
So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it.
And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it”[al-Zalzalah :6-8]
On the Day of Resurrection, each person will be given his book (record of deeds) and it will be said to him:
“Read your book. You yourself are sufficient as a reckoner against you this Day” [al-Israa’ 17:14 – interpretation of the meaning]
Whoever believed and did righteous deeds will take his book in his right hand in joy, and will enter Paradise, and whoever disobeyed Allaah and His Messenger will take his book in his left hand or from behind his back, and will enter Hell. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand,
He surely, will receive an easy reckoning,
And will return to his family in joy!
But whosoever is given his Record behind his back,
He will invoke (for his) destruction,
And he shall enter a blazing Fire, and made to taste its burning”
And there is a great difference between faith and disbelief, obedience and disobedience, the people of Paradise and the people of Hell:
“Is then he who is a believer like him who is a Faasiq (disbeliever and disobedient to Allaah)? Not equal are they.
As for those who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, for them are Gardens (Paradise) as an entertainment for what they used to do.
And as for those who are Faasiqoon (disbelievers and disobedient to Allaah), their abode will be the Fire, every time they wish to get away therefrom, they will be put back thereto, and it will be said to them: ‘Taste you the torment of the Fire which you used to deny’” [al-Sajdah 32:18-20 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah states that the believers are the ones who will be the victors, and the disbelievers are the ones who will be the losers, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“By Al-‘Asr (the time).
Verily, man is in loss,
Except those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, and recommend one another to the truth [i.e. order one another to perform all kinds of good deeds (Al-Ma‘roof) which Allaah has ordained, and abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds (Al-Munkar) which Allaah has forbidden], and recommend one another to patience (for the sufferings, harms, and injuries which one may encounter in Allaah’s Cause during preaching His religion of Islamic Monotheism or Jihaad)”[al-‘Asr 103:1-3]
O Allaah, grant us Paradise and save us from Hell. Bestow Your mercy upon us, O Most Merciful of those who show mercy.
From Usool al-Deen al-Islami by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri